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 Color Locus pages

Volume 1 - Wild (Silver) Form

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Table of Contents

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Phenotypes

Genetic Notations
Silver Angelfish Phenotypes

                     Wild Type, Silver +/+

                     Dark Locus

                     Stripeless / Zebra Locus

                     Albino Locus

                     Smokey Locus

                     Pearlscale Locus

                     Half-black Locus

                     Streaked Locus

                     Veil Fin Shape

 

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Angelfish Phenotypes

Viewing the color and pattern modifications caused by the known angelfish mutations may help with understanding the effects of these gene on other phenotypes.

The following color locus pages will highlight the most common angelfish color forms and their common variants
.

Phenotype = the physical appearance of a trait
Genotype = the written expression of the genetic makeup of the trait
Locus = the specific location of a gene on the chromosome

“The angelfish's chromosomes (containing the genetic material) are in pairs, one chromosome of each pair having come from each parent. Each gene occurs at a specific location, called locus (plural, loci), on the chromosome. Variations of a gene are called alleles. Only one allele occurs at a locus; another allele of that gene can occur at the same locus on another chromosome.” by Dr. Joanne Norton FAMA: July 1982, Vol. 5, #7

reference materials:
Dr. Joanne Norton’s Articles on Angelfish Genetics.

 

 

 


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Angelfish Genetic Notations


A. Notation to be used for accepted genes:

1. The letter designation of a gene name shall be its first letter unless that letter is already taken in which case the first two letters of the gene name shall be used.

2. The first letter will be uppercase if the gene is dominant to wild-type. The first letter will be lowercase if the gene is recessive to wild-type.

3. The second letter will always be lowercase.

4. If the first two letters are already used for an existing gene notation, then the next available consonant in the gene name will be used for the second letter.
5. The first letters of each word will be used for genes with more than one word attached to them.
6. Wild-type will be designated by (+).
7. The preferred written format will be to separate alleles with a (/). ex. for Hybrid Black D/g; for Smokey Sm/+. Fish that are dual-hybrids, tri-hybrids, etc. will have loci separated with a (-). ex. for Zebra Lace Z/+ - D/+ or Z/Z - D/+; for Half-black Zebra Lace h/h - Z/+ - D/+

B. Genes accepted as being proven through Dr. Norton's work and their letter designations:

1. Dark 

D

partially dominant

Dark locus

2. Marble   

M

partially dominant

Dark locus

3. Zebra   

Z

partially dominant

Stripeless locus

4. Gold   

g

recessive characteristic

Dark locus

5. Stripeless

S

partially dominant

Stripeless locus

6. Smokey

Sm

partially dominant

Smokey locus

7. Half-black 

h

recessive characteristic

Halfblack locus

8. Gold marble

Gm 

partially dominant

Dark locus

9. Pearl  

p

recessive characteristic

Pearl locus

10. Streaked

St

partially dominant

Streaked locus

11. Veil  

V

partially dominant

Veil locus

12. Albino

a

recessive characteristic

Albino locus

 

 

 

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Wild Type, Silver +/+

First the wild form, a Silver (+/+)

Silvers
 
The silver (genetic notation +/+) or wild type is the basis for all of the domestic mutations that have occurred.  Wild type should not be confused with wild caught which are angels actually caught in the wild.  Our domestic silvers most closely resemble wild angels.
 
A silver angel can be described as silver gray in color with 3 vertical stripes including the stripe over the eye.  Silvers are considered among the hardiest and easiest to raise and breed.  Good quality silvers should show dark complete stripes.  The stripes may fade when the fish is stressed.  Silvers raised in less than optimal conditions may show lighter colored stripes that may not be complete.   Silvers raised in continuous light will not show any stripes at all, except for perhaps all or part of the eye stripe. 
 

Several recessive genes can be hidden in single doses and not change the appearance of a silver angel. These are gold (+/g), albino (+/a), halfblack (+/h), and pearlscale (p/+).  Streaked can be hidden in both single (St/+) and double doses (St/St) as it only expresses on dark fish.

 

Silver

+/+

Silver

+/+

Silver

+/+

 

 

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The Dark Locus

Dark

The dark locus can contain the wild type genes or any of four color mutations.  Dark, gold, gold marble or marble.

D/+  When dark is added to a silver angel a black lace is produced.  This was one of the first mutations reported.  The stripes are the same but the fish takes on a dark gray brown background.  The markings in the fins also become more pronounced.

 

A beautiful standard finned black lace

D/+

Young black lace veils

D/+ - V/+

 

D/D  Dark in double dose produces a black angel often referred to as a double dark black to distinguish it from the hybrid blacks.  Double dark blacks are often very black and only under strong lighting can the underlying stripes usually be seen.  They are slow growing in comparison to hybrid blacks (D/g, D/Gm, and D/M) so are often more difficult to find commercially.

A double dark black veil

D/D -V/+

Double dark black veil combtail

D/D - V/+

 

Gold

g/+  Gold in single dose produces no changes on the silver angel.  In double dose it produces the gold angel (g/g).  A fish devoid of stripes which can vary in color from light silver yellow, to dark yellow, even showing some orange especially when mature.  Very young golds can sometimes show the underlying stripes as lighter vertical lines on their body.

Gold Veil

g/g - V/+

Standard finned gold

g/g

Male gold veil combtail

g/g - V/+

Female gold veil with over 2000 eggs

g/g - V/+

A gold veil with a nice orange crown

g/g - V/+

 

Gold Marble

Gm/+  The gold marble gene in single dose will produce a silver angel with random dark spots.  The silver angel’s stripes will be present.  This is typically referred to as a silver gold marble or barred gold marble.  Interestingly the stripes will fade with conditions and mood while the gold marble spotting will not fade.

A barred or silver gold marble showing a good bit of gold marble patterning.

Gm/+

A barred or silver gold marble showing only a little bit of gold marble patterning

Gm/+

 

Gm/Gm  The gold marble gene in double dose produces a gold marble angel.  Similar in base color to the gold angel but with the addition of random black spots like the silver gold marble.

The amount of gold marble pattern can vary between lines. Double dose gold marble will always show more pattern than single dose gold marble within t

Gm/Gm

Double dose gold marble from Dr Norton's article.

Gm/Gm

 

Marble

The marble gene causes a marbled brown to black pattern on a gray to white background.

M/+ The single dose marble angel has a brown pattern to it with less contrast to the base color as opposed to marble in double dose or when combined with gold or gold marble. The stripes are pretty well hidden in M/+ but sometimes they can be seen through the marble pattern.

A nice standard finned marble

M/+

It would help to clean the glass first :)

M/+ - V/+ combtail

Some lines of marble show a very brown pattern when M/+. This line was called calico marble.

M/+

 

M/M In double dose there is more marble pattern and the contrast between the pattern and background is greater.  Whereas M/+ often will display a red iris as it matures, M/M and other marbles that combine two genes from this allele group usually do not.

Double dose marbles are usually fairly dark. M/Gm would look similar.

M/M

Standard finned marble

M/M

A pair of double dose marbles.

M/M

 

 

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Stripeless / Zebra Locus 

Stripeless

Stripeless and zebra share the same locus and are alleles of each other.  Interestingly stripeless removes body stripes and zebra increases them.

S/+  The stripeless gene in single dose removes most of the stripes on the body of the silver angel.  Sometimes the rear body stripe or a portion of it remains.  When only a spot appears in front of the caudal fin it can be quite attractive.  The body remains the standard silver gray.  Striations remain in the fins. 

S/+ is called a silver ghost. 

S/+ will also affect the phenotype of other gene combinations when underlying stripes would be present.

Silver ghost veil S/+

S/+ - V/+

Silver ghost veil

S/+-V/+

Silver ghost veil

S/+ -V/+

Silver ghost veil

S/+ - V/+

 

S/S  In double dose, the stripeless gene produces the blushing phenotype.  The body is typically a gray with a hint of blue or purple coloration.  On some lines the blue is more pronounced.  The scales are not easily visible as they are in the non blushing varieties.  The skin is somewhat translucent as often is the gill plate which gives the variety its name as the red gill filaments often show through the translucent gill plate.  The gill plates tend to opacify as the fish ages.  Some areas of the body show highly reflective or iridescent patches.  In addition, the fins become translucent, and do not show any striations in the  blushing angel.

A nice group of blushing veils

S/S - V/+

Standard finned blushing

S/S

Standard finned blushing

S/S

 

Zebra

Z/+ or Z/Z  The zebra gene shares the same locus as the stripeless gene.  It produces extra body stripes and fin striations.  Sometimes additional small spots are seen in between the stripes.  Double dose zebras are supposed to grow at a slower rate than single dose zebras, but are otherwise indistinguishable.

A pair of zebra veils with fry

Z/+ - V/+ or Z/Z - V/+

A nice standard finned zebra in front

Z/+ or Z/Z

 

 

 

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Smokey Locus

Smokey

Sm/+  The smokey gene produces an irregular gray-brown pattern to form on the rear half of the fish.  Fry show normal stripes but lose them at about pea sized as the smokey pattern emerges.  Most of the rear half of the body is covered but usually not all.

A standard finned smokey

Sm/+

A smokey veil

Sm/+ - V/+

Smokey superveil combtail

Sm/+ - V/V

Smokey veil

Sm/+ - V/+

 

Chocolate

Sm/Sm  In double dose the smokey gene causes most of the fish to be covered in the same gray-brown color.  Still some small silver patches usually show through.  The common name for this fish is a chocolate.

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Halfblack Locus

Halfblack

h/h The halfblack gene is recessive and does not affect the phenotype when in single dose (h/+). When in double dose the rear portion of the fish from the last body stripe back is near black. The fins or the rear portion of them are also black. A very striking fish but difficult to produce as many of the fry do not express the color pattern, or only partially do, with a black tail or similar. Requirements for the color expression have not been worked out. Fish that do not express the pattern seem to be able to produce halfblack fry as well as fish that exhibit the pattern.

Standard finned halfblack

h/h

Halfblack veil

h/h - V/+

Halfblack veil combtail

h/h - V/+

Halfblack pair spawning

 

 

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 Albino Locus

Albino

a/a Albino is another recessive gene that does not affect the phenotype when in single dose.  Of course two single dose albinos (a/+) will produce 25% albino offspring.  The albino gene can be added to any of the other genetic combinations to produce an albino form of that color variety.  Albinos do not produce any dark pigments and therefore show a white to yellow body.  Normally dark markings are replaced by markings that are lighter than the baseline body color.  This makes for attractive “negative” stripes on the silver albino.  As in most albinos, the eyes are red and in color varieties that would normally have a red iris, the iris of the albino is intensely red.

Silver albino with excellent conformation

a/a

An albino pair raising their own fry.

 

 

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 Pearlscale Locus

Pearlscale

p/p  Pearly or pearlscale is another recessive gene that can be added to any other color variety.  The gene produces a crinkled tinfoil appearance to the scales of the fish as they get older.  Usually it will start to express when the fish have between nickel and quarter sized bodies.  On slower growing or stunted fish the pearlscale can develop on a smaller sized fish.  The expression seems to increase as the fish ages.  It is usually more obvious on lighter varieties and may be difficult to see on dark colored and blushing angels.

A group of nice silver pearlscales

p/p

Albino pearlscale

a/a - p/p

A pair of marble pearlscale veils

M/g - p/p - V/+

Silver pearlscale

p/p

 

 

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Streaked Locus

Streaked

St/+ or St/St  Streaked is a gene that modifies dark fish, either lace colored, D/+, or black, double dark blacks or hybrid blacks.  It adds random light splashes of pattern to them which can increase with age producing almost a dark marble pattern.  It presents the same in both single and double dose.  Streaked will be carried but not visible in light colored fish.

The white streak in the dorsal fin of this black veil is due to the streaked gene.

St/+ or St/St - D/g or D/D - V/+

Streaked Zebra lace veil

D/+ - Z/+ St/+ V/+ May be St/St as well

 

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Veil Locus

Veil

V/+ The veil gene is a fin modifier that in single dose causes elongation of all of the fins.  It does not change the color or pattern of the fish.  Although not always, in general the body of a veil or superveil will be smaller than its standard finned siblings.

Silver veil

V/+

Silver veil

V/+

 

Superveil

V/V  In double dose which is commonly called superveil, the fins are even longer especially the caudal fin.  This fin is often so long that it droops downward.  Due to the length of the fins it is difficult to raise them and keep their fins at top quality.

Silver superveil

V/V

Smokey superveil combtail

Sm/+ - V/V

 

 

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